Exploring CBD’s Mechanisms in Alleviating Depression

Exploring CBD's Mechanisms in Alleviating Depression

Depression is a complex mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide.

While traditional treatment methods have helped many individuals, the need for alternative therapies has come to the forefront.

Enter cannabidiol (CBD), a compound derived from the cannabis plant, known for its therapeutic potential in various mental health conditions.

In recent years, CBD has garnered significant attention for its potential role in alleviating depression and other psychological disorders such as anxiety.

In this article, we will delve into the fascinating mechanisms through which CBD may combat depression.

1. Balancing Neurotransmitters & Acting On Serotonin Receptors

CBD Cannabidiol and Serotonin

Depression is often linked to neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain.

CBD has been found to interact with the endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for regulating mood, memory, and emotions.

Research suggests that CBD can influence serotonin receptors, the same receptors targeted by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly prescribed for depression.

By modulating serotonin levels, CBD may help alleviate depressive symptoms.

Our results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect induced by CBD in the FST is dependent on serotonin levels in the central nervous system (CNS).[1]

2. Neurogenesis and Neuronal Plasticity:

CBD Cannabidiol Neurogenesis

Studies have shown that depressed individuals tend to have reduced hippocampal volume and impaired neural plasticity, meaning their brains find it difficult to adapt to new experiences.

Here, CBD’s potential neurogenic properties come into play.

Research indicates that CBD may promote neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, and enhance neuronal plasticity.

This phenomenon holds promise for individuals struggling with depression, as it suggests CBD might provide the brain with the necessary tools to recover and heal.

The second phytocannabinoid, CBD, also proved to have effects on neurogenesis, but it is dose-dependent.

Repeated doses of CBD (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) have a comparable effect as imipramine in reducing anxious behaviors, and lower dose of CBD increase cell proliferation and neurogenesis.

On the contrary, chronic high doses of CBD show opposite effects on proliferation and neurogenesis, maintaining the antidepressant properties similar to the benchmark.

This apparently weird behavior of CBD can be explained by the desensitization of CB1 receptor, which after high repeated doses of CBD is no longer able to promote neurogenesis, resulting in a decreased number of DCX-positive cells.[2]

3. Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress:

CBD Cannabidiol Inflammation Oxidative Stress

Inflammation and oxidative stress are increasingly recognized as playing a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder.

Remarkably, CBD has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, providing a potential avenue for managing depression symptoms.

By reducing inflammation in the brain and combating oxidative stress, CBD may contribute to a healthier neuronal environment, consequently mitigating depressive symptoms.

At the same time, the antioxidant potential of CBD is due not only to the molecular structure but also to the fact that this compound increases the expression of the main endogenous antioxidant systems, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), through the nuclear complex erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/Keep1.

Regarding the role in the control of inflammation, this function is exercised by inhibiting (nuclear factor kappa B) NF-κB, and also the genes that encode the expression of molecules with a pro-inflammatory role (cytokines and metalloproteinases).[4]

4. Anxiety Relief:

CBD Cannabidiol Anxiety Relief

Depression often coexists with anxiety, intensifying the burden on individuals.

CBD’s anxiolytic properties have been extensively studied, offering a potential dual benefit for those experiencing both depression and anxiety.

By reducing anxiety levels and symptom burden, CBD may create a more stable foundation for individuals battling depression, allowing them to focus on their overall mental well-being.

In both populations, acute CBD administration significantly decreased anxiety without co-occurring sedation.

A single study has also shown chronic administration to decrease social anxiety symptoms in individuals with SAD. Collectively, the current literature suggests CBD may be a promising treatment for SAD (Social Anxiety Disorder).[5]

We found that existing preclinical evidence strongly supports CBD as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder when administered acutely.

Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders. – [6]

5. Stress Response Modulation:

CBD Cannabidiol Stress Response

Stress can worsen depressive symptoms, creating a vicious cycle that is challenging to break.

CBD may help break this cycle by modulating the body’s stress response.

Research suggests that CBD can influence the release of cortisol, the stress hormone responsible for triggering anxiety and contributing to depression.

By regulating cortisol levels, CBD may help individuals manage stress more effectively, consequently reducing depressive episodes.

There have been seven double-blind placebo controlled clinical trials of CBD for stress on a combined total of 232 participants and one partially controlled study on 120 participants.

All showed that CBD was effective in significantly reducing the stress response and was non-inferior to pharmaceutical comparators, when included.

The clinical trial results are supported by the established mechanisms of action of CBD (including increased N-arachidonylethanolamine levels) and extensive real-world and preclinical evidence of the effectiveness of CBD for treating stress.[7]

Conclusion:

While further research is necessary to unlock the full potential of CBD in combating depression, early findings present a compelling case for its effectiveness.

CBD’s multifaceted mechanisms, including neurotransmitter modulation, neurogenesis, inflammation reduction, anxiety relief, and stress response modulation, provide a glimmer of hope for individuals seeking alternative treatments for depression.

However, it is vital to consult with a healthcare professional before integrating CBD into any treatment plan, ensuring its safe and appropriate use.


References

[1] Antidepressant-like effect induced by Cannabidiol is dependent on brain serotonin levels

[2] Cannabinoids and Neurogenesis: The Promised Solution for Neurodegeneration?

[3] Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol

[4] Cannabidiol: Bridge between Antioxidant Effect, Cellular Protection, and Cognitive and Physical Performance

[5] Systematic literature review of human studies assessing the efficacy of cannabidiol for social anxiety

[6] Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

[7] Enhancing Endocannabinoid Control of Stress with Cannabidiol

The information in this article has not been evaluated by the FDA and should not be used to diagnose, cure or treat any disease, implied or otherwise.

Always consult a medical professional before taking any dietary supplements, herbs or medication.


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